Session III: Global Migration, Failed Citizenship & Civic Education
Global migration has complicated the development of citizenship and citizenship education in nations around the world. Many racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and religious groups are denied structural inclusion into their nation-state. Consequently, they do not internalize the values and symbols of the nation-state, develop a strong identity with it, or acquire political efficacy. They focus on particularistic group needs and goals rather than on the overarching goals of the nation-state. In this Paper James Banks, conceptualizes the process as “failed citizenship.” The Paper develops a typology that identifies: (1) failed citizenship; (2) recognized citizenship; (3) successful or participatory citizenship; and (4) transformative citizenship. It then details how these types of citizenship are interrelated. Lastly it explores the role of schooling in reducing failed citizenship and in helping marginalized groups become transformative citizens in multicultural nation-states.